MIDDLE CLASS ASSOCIATIONS AT THE RIM OF THE EASTERN BALTIC SEA

The core objective is to strengthen all Baltic Sea rim countries, especially the EU members among them, by promoting cross-border togetherness of middle class entrepreneurs. This introduction aims at inspiring awareness for this burning problem of European concern, at stimulating results oriented discussions for feasible solution options and and for winning appropriate partners for effective innovations.…

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HISTORY OF BALTIC CITIZEN´S FINANCIAL SELF-HELP

Historically, i.e. until WWII, the FINANCIAL SYSTEMS IN ESTONIA, LATVIA AND ALSO IN LITHUANIA were very CLOSE TO THE GERMAN SYSTEM.…

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HISTORY OF BALTIC FINANCIAL CULTURE

GERMANY AND THE EASTERN BALTIC SEA REGION, since centuries – also to-day - belong to the SAME CULTURE. The specific common culture of civic society supporting finance is at the centre. Therefore, it urges to reach JOINT GERMAN-BALTIC EFFORTS to make the economic future liveable.…

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MEMORABLE EVENT AT THE END OF WORLD WAR I

In 1918, weeks ahead of the exile of the German Emperor, GERMAN, LIVONIAN, ESTONIAN AND COURLAND AUTHORITIES MET in Berlin to discuss the ECONOMIC – not the political – INTEGRATION OF THE BALTIC ECONOMIES INTO GERMANY’S. There were NUMEROUS participants from the GERMAN SAVINGS BANKS Group. They welcomed the plan and offered there services, expecting BENEFITS FOR THEIR CLIENTEL. The representative of the German military administration (OBER-OST) in the Baltic region expressed the view that a CLOSER INTEGRATION had been intended.…

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DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATIONS OF ESTONIA AND LATVIA, THE SUCCESSOR STATES OF LIVONIA, OLD-ESTONIA AND CURONIA IN THE RURAL AREAS

The big number of co-operative banks - the numbr of MUTURAL INSURERS, closely related bodies - in the small Estonian nation proves its former OMNI-PRESENCE and their STRONG REGIONAL or regional ROOTS.…

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Comments concerning Estonia and Latvia

The big number of co-operative banks - the numbr of MUTURAL INSURERS, closely related bodies - in the small Estonian nation proves its former OMNI-PRESENCE and their STRONG REGIONAL or regional ROOTS.…

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LATVIA UNTIL SECOND WORLD WAR: SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRADITIONAL COOPERATIVE AND MUNICIPALITY BANKS: MODERN COOP LEGISLATION OF 1937

(Source of the following: Valsts statistika parvalde. Financu un kredita statistika. 1938g. Sarakstigis J. Jurevics; redigejis A. Maldups. The addresses of the locations are taken from a 1936…

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ESTONIA BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND WORLD WAR: CONTINUITY AND MODERNISING OF THE URBAN CIVIC SOCIETY GOVERNED FINANCE SECTOR AND THE EXTRA-ORDINARY UP-RISE OF RURAL COOPERATIVE BANKS

For some of the institutions contained (but included in the subsequent annex) in the following list (Source: Eesti Statistika. 1939. Tallinn; 1939; Riigi Statistika Keskbüroo; p. 382), additionally to their Estonian denominations, also the German language names have been detected. Apoart from this, further facts are laid down in brackets.…

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DO YOU KNOW HOW TO MAKE MONEY, Mr. Lewerenz?

In 1991 I joined the EU Commission PHARE Programme as so-called national (= German) expert. One year leater, from February 1992 on (until mid-1993), the Commission (because of my commercial banking and monetary affairs professional back-ground and on the basis of an un-specified Estonian help request) commissioned me to advise the Central Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank).…

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INTRODUCTORY NOTES FOR THE THE MAPS COLLECTION FROM THE MELLIN ATLAS, END OF 18TH CENTURY

INTRODUCTORY NOTES FOR THE THE MAPS COLLECTION FROM THE MELLIN ATLAS, END OF 18TH CENTURY

Count Mellin, the author of this work, was one of the members of „Livländische Gemeinnützige und Ökonomische Sozietät“ (working translation: Livonian Common Weal and Economic Society; an official English language version of the denomination does not exist), founded 1792 in Riga and transferred at the beginning of 19th century to Doerpt/Dorpat/Tartu/Jurjev, the University town of Livonia, where this institution operated until 1940.…

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